Current best evidence for clinical care (more info)
OBJECTIVES: Recent evidence has shown no harm associated with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We sought to further clarify the possible association between ACEI/ARB use and the risk of poor clinical outcomes of COVID-19.
METHODS: From the completely enumerated COVID-19 cohort in Korea, we identified 1,290 patients with hypertension, of whom 682 had and 603 did not have records of ACEI/ARB use during the 30-day period before their COVID-19 diagnosis. Our primary endpoint comprised clinical outcomes, including all-cause mortality, use of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and sepsis. We used inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to mitigate selection bias, and a Poisson regression model to estimate the relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for comparing outcomes between ACEI/ARB users and non-users.
RESULTS: Compared to non-use, ACEI/ARB use was associated with lower clinical outcomes (IPTW-adjusted RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.85; p=0.005). For individual outcomes, ACEI/ARB use was not associated with all-cause mortality (IPTW-adjusted RR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.35 to 1.09; p=0.097) or respiratory events (IPTW-adjusted RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.17; p=0.904). Subgroup analysis showed a trend toward a protective role of ACEIs and ARBs against overall outcomes in men (IPTW-adjusted RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.03; pinteraction=0.008) and patients with pre-existing respiratory disease (IPTW-adjusted RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.92; pinteraction=0.002).
CONCLUSIONS: We present clinical evidence to support continuing ACE/ARB use in COVID-19 patients with hypertension based on the completely enumerated Korean cohort.
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The findings of this study are in accordance with the guidance of major CV Societies that state that patients on or ARBs should not stop their treatment.
This is an interesting study that shows a positive outcome for those who receive these medications and continue to receive these. However, the study is observational and there are now many others like this. There is now a trial that shows no difference in outcome whether the treatment is maintained or washed out.