BACKGROUND: Left ventricular thrombus (LVT) is a complication of multiple cardiovascular diseases. There has been an increasing trend of off-label using direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for the treatment of patients with LVT. The effectiveness and safety of DOACs remain to be determined.
METHOD: We searched for publications (PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE, Scopus, and ClinicalTrials.gov) comparing DOACs with Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in patients with LVT. We estimated odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for stroke, systemic embolism, major bleeding events, and thrombus resolution as the effectiveness and safety outcomes. The subgroup analysis and meta-regression were also performed.
RESULTS: Nine retrospective observational studies with a total of 2028 participants were included. DOACs demonstrated a similar risk of stroke, systemic embolism, major bleeding events, and thrombus resolution (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.50-1.23; OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.65-2.26; OR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.47-1.42; OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 0.62-2.90, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: There is no difference between DOACs and VKAs in patients with LVT from the perspectives of stroke, systemic embolism, major bleeding events, and thrombus resolution. Prospective randomized controlled trials with adequate sample sizes are urgently needed to confirm findings.